HAIR & NAILS
HAIR & NAILS
What is a sensitive scalp?
Scalp sensitivity is mainly due to an imbalance in sebum production and can cause irritation. Pollution and stress are also the cause of scalp irritation.
Is hair loss normal?
Hair loss is a normal physiological phenomenon and can be diagnosed with expert medical advice.
Are men the only ones affected by hair loss?
Androgenic alopecia mainly affects men but, to a lesser extent, can also affect women.
Who should be consulted concerning hair loss?
Your GP or dermatologist will make a diagnosis.
When are women most susceptible to hair loss?
After menopause when the ovaries no longer produce oestrogen with protective action against the male hormones responsible for hair loss. After childbirth, but normal hair loss is reversible within a few months.
What is the most common cause of hair loss?
In over 90% of cases, the main cause in men is androgenetic alopecia.
How do you know if you have female androgenetic alopecia?
Your hair loss is gradual. It is localised on defined areas of the head: it usually begins with a simple widening of the central parting it then gradually spreads over the entire top of the head and often focuses on the back of the head, or on the temples and above the ears.
Causes of oily hair
This reaction is often constitutional of the scalp. Men and adolescents, for example, often have more oily hair than women because of their hormonal production. There are solutions but if the problem persists, you should consult your dermatologist.
What is desquamation?
The phenomenon of desquamation consists in the elimination of the superficial layers of the epidermis, in the form of small flakes We also talk about exfoliation. This desquamation, a natural process of skin renewal, can be accelerated due to sunburn or a skin condition such as psoriasis.
What is sebum?
Sebum is a substance mainly made up of lipids, secreted by the sebaceous glands at the base of the hairs. Mixed with sweat, it protects the skin from dryness and external aggressions.
What is hyperseborrhoea?
Hyperseborrhoea is a skin phenomenon associated with excessive production of sebum, causing the skin to appear shiny. It is the cause of oily skin and possibly the cause of the development of acne.
What is a dander?
Dander refers to a thin layer of skin that is detached from the epidermis. Naturally, the dead cells are shed in the form of tiny flakes. However, they become visible in the event of excessive desquamation linked to skin dermatosis (psoriasis) or inflammation of the scalp (dandruff).
What is psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition. It often manifests as red patches covered with scales. Psoriasis is most common on the knees, elbows, umbilicus and lumbar region. It can also affect the scalp or the hands and mucous membranes.
What is a hair follicle?
Invisible part of the hair, buried 4 mm below the scalp, the hair follicle contains the hair. It is a kind of sac, also called a pilosebaceous follicle, which contains the hair bulb.
What is dandruff?
Dandruff is a dead cell and can take two forms. Dry, it falls like rain on the shoulders. Oily, it is bigger and stickier. Dandruff is caused by the overgrowth of a yeast that leads to accelerated cell turnover.
What are integuments
The word integument comes from the Latin integumentum, which means covering Therefore, integuments designate all the productions of the epidermis which cover the skin and are apparent. Hair and body hair are part of it.
What does alopecia mean?
Alopecia is the loss of hair and body hair. The ultimate stage of alopecia is baldness. Alopecia affects both men and women. It can be partial or total. Hair loss has several origins: heredity, stress, nutritional deficiency, unsuitable shampoos, etc.
When do we speak of androgenetic alopecia?
Hair loss of genetic origin is called androgenetic alopecia. This alopecia, the most common, is due to an excess of male hormones, androgens. Also known as male pattern baldness, androgenetic alopecia can occur at a very young age, around 18 years old.
What are androgens?
Androgens are male hormones, secreted by the testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands situated above each kidney. Testosterone is the most active androgen. Hair loss of genetic origin is therefore due to the influence of these male hormones.
When are we talking about brittle or split nails?
A brittle or split nail is the result of weakening of its structure. The different layers of keratin that make up the nail are subdivided or fragmented for different reasons: the use of scissors or nail clippers, unsuitable cosmetics, repeated exposure to detergents, a dietary deficiency, prolonged immersion in water, etc.
What is a soft nail?
The soft nail bends and tears easily: it needs extra protection. Its origin is often linked to a lack of vitamins and minerals in the daily diet. It can also be the result of poor health. The solution: apply a moisturising hardener to restore the junction bridges between the different keratin plates.
What is a ridged nail?
A nail can be ridged longitudinally or transversely. These defects are the sign of ageing of the nail, a skin disease (psoriasis mycosis, etc.) or poor blood circulation. These grooves weaken the nail, making it unsightly. The treatment involves the use of a filling varnish to resurface the nail.
What is a dermocosmetics?
A dermocosmetic product is applied locally to the skin, scalp and hair. It combines cosmetic and dermatological action. Dermocosmetic treatments are formulated to preserve the health and beauty of the skin and hair. They help moisturise dry skin, treat dandruff, relieve psoriasis, etc.
What is the dermis?
The dermis is the layer below the epidermis and above the hypodermis. It is made up of collagen and elastic fibres, which give the skin its resistance and elasticity. It also acts as a hydration reservoir thanks to molecules that capture water: GAGs (glyco-amino-glycans).
What is the epidermis?
The epidermis is the outermost layer of the skin. It is located above the dermis. Waterproof, the epidermis is the first defence against external aggressions.
What is the hydrolipidic film?
The hydrolipidic film is a protective film covering the entire surface of the skin. It is mainly made up of sweat, sebum and water and its main function is to defend the skin against bacteria. In short, to act as an external protective barrier. It also allows the skin to remain supple and hydrated.
What is atopy?
Atopy is an inherited predisposition of the immune system to develop hypersensitivity reactions. Atopy manifests itself in different forms: rhinitis, asthma, conjunctiva, food allergies. This predisposition can also be expressed through atopic dermatitis.
What is atopic dermatitis?
Atopic dermatitis, also called atopic eczema, is characterised by constitutional dryness and inflammation associated with pruritus in times of crisis. Present in genetically predisposed people, this dermatosis is of allergic origin and affects 20% of children in industrialised countries
What is rosacea?
Rosacea is a skin condition on the face related to couperose. It is characterised by the appearance of redness associated with pimples, especially on the nose, chin, forehead and cheeks. Rosacea is also called acne rosacea.
What is inflammatory acne?
Inflammatory acne is a common form of acne linked to inflammation of microcysts and comedones. It is therefore an aggravation of retentional acne manifested by the appearance of pimples (pustules, papules, nodules and nodular cysts).
What is retentional acne?
A common form of acne, retentional acne is characterised by the presence of retentional lesions resulting from hyperkeratinisation of the pilosebaceous duct. Two types of retentional lesions exist: comedones and microcysts (open and closed comedones).
What are blackheads?
The comedone is an excessive accumulation of sebum, secreted by the sebaceous gland, and filling the pore of the skin.
There are three types of comedones including the open comedone or blackhead: the part in contact with air oxidises and becomes black.
What is a mattifying product?
A mattifying product reduces the shiny appearance of the skin, by absorbing sebaceous secretions and limiting sebum production. And this, in particular thanks to the presence of vitamins and zinc which neutralise the shine at the source, or technologies which unclog the core of the pores. It can take the form of a powder, foundation, or emulsion.
What is inflammation?
Inflammation is the body's immune defence reaction to an attack: infection, burn, allergy, etc. On the skin, it can be characterised by the presence of redness, swelling, heat or even irritation.
An astringent has the property of drying out and tightening the tissues. An astringent substance can be used for its antiseptic properties. The improper use of astringent soaps can sometimes cause skin dryness. In this case, they should be replaced by surgras soaps, suitable for dry skin.
What is ichthyosis?
Ichthyosis is a skin condition characterised by severe skin dryness and the presence of scales. The skin also appears rough to the touch. Ichthyosis results from abnormal thickening of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis.
What is xerosis?
Xerosis is the dermatological term for excessive skin dryness. It is characterised by rough skin, which lacks flexibility.
What is couperose?
Couperose is a permanent state of redness located on certain localised areas of the face, such as the nose or cheeks. It is linked to the dilation of blood vessels. Couperose is an aggravation of erythrosis, characterised by the appearance of diffuse redness.
What is erythrosis?
Erythrosis appears as a diffuse and persistent redness on the face. It occurs after external aggressions, such as shaving or temperature variations. It occurs mainly on the nose, chin, forehead and cheeks.
What is the treatment for itchy intimate areas?
doctor may recommend suitable products (anti-infective medication or a dermatological cream). To accompany your treatment, the use of specific intimate hygiene products with a soothing active ingredient is recommended.
How to prevent intimate itching in women?
The first step is to avoid recurrence and adopt the right actions. The first of these is to use suitable personal hygiene products. In all cases, it is imperative to seek the advice of a health professional. Indeed, the tingling felt in the intimate area is not necessarily due to yeast infection. Hence the importance of consulting a doctor. The doctor alone will be able to prescribe a medical treatment adapted to the pathology.
How are stretch marks formed?
Stretch marks look like small scars on the surface of the skin. Emerging stretch marks are red/purple. Over time they develop into white streaks.
How to reduce stretch marks?
The best way to fight stretch marks is to prevent them from forming. For this, we must avoid the effect of losing and regaining weight too quickly by adopting a healthy lifestyle and practicing regular physical activity.
What is postpartum hair loss?
This hair loss is typical of the postpartum period. As pregnancy hormone levels return to normal, the changes they trigger in the body will gradually ease and your hair will return to its normal state.
How long does postpartum hair loss last?
The duration of postpartum hair loss varies among women. It usually lasts about three months and the hair begins to grow about six months after birth. There is a return to normal about 12 months after childbirth.
What are menopause disorders?
Menopause is a natural phenomenon; it is not an illness. The term menopause etymologically means "stop menstruation", and refers to the period when the ovaries stop producing reproductive hormones: oestrogen; progesterone.
From what age does menopause start?
Menopause most often begins around the age of 50.
When do we talk about urinary tract infection?
Urinary tract infections affect the urinary system, usually in the bladder, urethra or kidneys. The inflammation is often caused by bacteria in the digestive tract (E. Coli) that infect the urinary tract from the anus.
The different urinary tract infections
Urinary tract infections can remain localised in the lower urinary tract (they do not go above the bladder), in which case they are called cystitis for the bladder or urethritis for the urethra. Sometimes the germs invade the urinary tract as far as the kidneys, this is called pyelonephritis. If the prostate is affected, it is called prostatitis.
Can urinary tract infections be prevented?
Yes, and prevention involves simple actions: avoid wiping from back to front in the toilet, avoid douching (which alters the vaginal flora), drink plenty of water, urinate before and after sexual intercourse, do not wear tight clothes and prefer cotton underwear.